Ultrasound for Phlebology Procedures

Mar 27, 2017 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Ultrasound for Phlebology Procedures

Fig. 7.1 Foamed sclerosant can be seen as hyperechoic bubbles present in the target vein There are advantages to using a transverse target position for needle access along the long…

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Presentation of Chronic Venous Disease

Mar 27, 2017 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Presentation of Chronic Venous Disease

Fig. 3.1 (a) Before treatment Clinical C4 – VCSS 16. (b). Four months after treatment, patient remains Clinical C4. Now C4 – V9 Fig. 3.2 (a) Prior to treatment Clinical…

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Low-Flow Vascular Malformations

Mar 27, 2017 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Low-Flow Vascular Malformations

Fig. 17.1 The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies classification system. Vascular anomalies are divided on the basis of cellular kinetics and clinical behavior into two major categories:…

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Reflux Management

Mar 27, 2017 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Reflux Management

Tingling Aching Burning Muscle cramps Swelling Throbbing Heaviness Itching Restless legs Tiredness Fatigue Table 4.2 outlines differential diagnostic considerations for lower extremity pain and discomfort. Tables 4.3 and 4.4 outline…

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Lymphedema

Mar 27, 2017 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Lymphedema

Fig. 23.1 Schematic diagram of the lymphatic system demonstrating the superficial and deep lymphatics and lymph nodes The lymphatic vasculature is composed of a hierarchal network of initial and collecting…

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Venous Leg Ulcers

Mar 27, 2017 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Venous Leg Ulcers

Ankle-brachial index ≥0.9–1.3 Normal range ≥0.6–0.8 Borderline perfusion ≤0.5 Severe ischemia Ankle pressure ≤40 mmHg Critical limb ischemia Toe pressure ≤30 mmHg Critical limb ischemia Transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement (TcPO…

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Upper Deep Vein Disease

Mar 27, 2017 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Upper Deep Vein Disease

Fig. 15.1 Some common symptoms of multiple sclerosis Other vascular problems of the cerebrospinal system produce different symptoms. Acute dural sinus or jugular vein obstruction, such as that caused by…

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Vein Anesthesia

Mar 27, 2017 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Vein Anesthesia

Esters Amides Procaine (Novocain®) Lidocaine (Xylocaine®) Chloroprocaine (Nesacaine®) Mepivacaine (Polocaine® or Carbocaine®) Bupivacaine (Marcaine®) Prilocaine (Citanest®) Ropivacaine (Naropin®) Bupivacaine was first synthesized in 1957 and was of particular interest because…

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Transcutaneous Laser Vein Ablation

Mar 27, 2017 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Transcutaneous Laser Vein Ablation

Fig. 13.1 Absorption spectrum of hemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin (Prahl [27]) Fig. 13.2 Absorption spectrum of melanin (Jacques [28]) Fig. 13.3 Absorption spectrum of water (Hale and Querry [29]) Fig. 13.4…

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Deep Vein Thrombosis

Mar 27, 2017 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Deep Vein Thrombosis

Fig. 20.1 Platelets and the two types of granules they contain. Alpha granules contain insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-B), platelet factor 4…

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