CARDIAC SURGERY

Diaphragm Disorders: Paralysis, Hernia, Eventration

Jun 24, 2019 by in CARDIAC SURGERY Comments Off on Diaphragm Disorders: Paralysis, Hernia, Eventration

DIAPHRAGM PARALYSIS Functional Anatomy of the Diaphragm and Other Respiratory Muscles ▪ Primary inspiratory muscles are those respiratory muscles that are phasically recruited with each ventilatory effort, under resting conditions….

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Pleural Masses

Jun 24, 2019 by in CARDIAC SURGERY Comments Off on Pleural Masses

TYPES OF PLEURAL MASSES ▪ Mesothelioma ▪ Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura ▪ Other Rarer Pleural Masses ( Table 48-1 ) TABLE 48-1 ▪ Classification of Pleural Masses Benign…

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Carcinoma of the Esophagus

Jun 24, 2019 by in CARDIAC SURGERY Comments Off on Carcinoma of the Esophagus

TERMINOLOGY ▪ Carcinoma of the esophagus ▪ Esophageal cancer ▪ Esophageal malignancy INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION Carcinoma of the esophagus is a growing problem in the United States, where an estimated…

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Benign Esophageal Disease

Jun 24, 2019 by in CARDIAC SURGERY Comments Off on Benign Esophageal Disease

ESOPHAGEAL STRICTURE There are two benign disease processes that may result in esophageal strictures: ▪ Extrinsic disease ▪ Intrinsic disease The etiology of these strictures may be elucidated based on…

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Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy

Jun 24, 2019 by in CARDIAC SURGERY Comments Off on Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy

TERMINOLOGY ▪ Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) ▪ Pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic pulmonary emboli ▪ Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) ▪ Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) DEFINITION Pulmonary hypertension and subsequent right-sided heart…

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Transplant Immunology

Jun 24, 2019 by in CARDIAC SURGERY Comments Off on Transplant Immunology

INTRODUCTION ▪ The optimal treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure is transplantation. This is especially true for patients who are candidates for lung, heart, and heart-lung transplantation because no…

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Staging of Lung Cancer

Jun 24, 2019 by in CARDIAC SURGERY Comments Off on Staging of Lung Cancer

TERMINOLOGY ▪ Stage of disease ▪ TNM subsets ▪ Stage grouping ▪ cStage ▪ pStage ▪ rStage DEFINITIONS ▪ The stage of disease describes the anatomic extent of the cancer….

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Other Neoplastic Lesions: Benign and Malignant

Jun 24, 2019 by in CARDIAC SURGERY Comments Off on Other Neoplastic Lesions: Benign and Malignant

OTHER NEOPLASTIC LESIONS Introduction ▪ Histologically most cases of lung cancer are adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, large cell undifferentiated carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. ▪ If carcinoid and atypical carcinoid…

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