Ischemic Patterns

Nov 17, 2018 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Ischemic Patterns

Ischemic Patterns Coronary Anatomy The right and left main coronary arteries arise from the right and left aortic sinuses located at the aortic root. The left main coronary artery branches…

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Paced Rhythms

Nov 17, 2018 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Paced Rhythms

Paced Rhythms The Pacemaker FIGURE 13.1 A. Anatomy of a dual-chamber pacemaker. B. ECG appearance of atrial and ventricular pacing. Electrode Types Unipolar Cathode is on the lead tip; anode…

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Fast and Wide

Nov 17, 2018 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Fast and Wide

Fast and Wide Wide Complex Tachycardia—Overview Both supraventricular and ventricular mechanisms underlie wide complex rhythms. Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia—Causes Monomorphic VT—ECG Features There are several features that may help diagnose monomorphic…

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Fast and Narrow

Nov 17, 2018 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Fast and Narrow

Fast and Narrow Mechanisms Underlying Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias Reentry Reentry occurs when the refractory periods and conduction speeds of two separate pathways differ. The initial impulse (marked by blue star) is…

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QT Abnormalities and Electrolyte Disturbances

Nov 17, 2018 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on QT Abnormalities and Electrolyte Disturbances

QT Abnormalities and Electrolyte Disturbances The QT Interval The QT interval represents ventricular depolarization and repolarization (phase 0-3 of the action potential, Fig. 8.1). The length of the QT interval…

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Voltage Abnormalities

Nov 17, 2018 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Voltage Abnormalities

Voltage Abnormalities The Low-Voltage ECG Criteria Voltage is considered low in the limb leads when the average QRS amplitude is less than 5 mm and low in the precordial leads…

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Abnormal T Waves

Nov 17, 2018 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Abnormal T Waves

Abnormal T Waves The Normal T Wave The T wave represents rapid repolarization (phase 3 of the action potential). The normal T wave is asymmetric with a gradual slope followed…

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Abnormal QRS Morphology

Nov 17, 2018 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Abnormal QRS Morphology

Abnormal QRS Morphology Brugada Pattern and Syndrome Pathogenesis Brugada syndrome is an autosomally dominant inherited disease (with incomplete penetrance) known for causing sudden death in patients with structurally normal hearts….

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AV Conduction Blocks

Nov 17, 2018 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on AV Conduction Blocks

AV Conduction Blocks First-Degree AV Block First-degree AV block is a delay in conduction, not a true block. First-degree block represents conduction delay somewhere between the sinus node and ventricles….

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Premature Beats

Nov 17, 2018 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Premature Beats

Premature Beats Premature Atrial Complex Premature atrial complexes (PACs) arise from an ectopic focus anywhere in the atria, including the coronary sinus and pulmonary veins. Most often, PACs are asymptomatic…

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