Investigation of bradycardias

Jun 26, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Investigation of bradycardias

Sinus bradycardia Sinus rates less than 60 beats per minute (bpm) are defined as bradycardia in adults. , Lower rates are common in well-trained athletes and occasionally in the young….

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Vascular access and catheter placement

Jun 26, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Vascular access and catheter placement

Patient preparation Patients should be studied in the postabsorptive state and after beta blockers or other antiarrhythmic agents have been discontinued for at least 5 days. Amiodarone should be withdrawn…

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Cardiac anatomy for the electrophysiologist

Jun 26, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Cardiac anatomy for the electrophysiologist

Some of the descriptive terms conventionally used for cardiac structures are inaccurate. Conventionally the heart and its associated structures have been described in accordance with their position when the heart…

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Electrophysiology hardware

Jun 26, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Electrophysiology hardware

Electrode catheters Basic mapping catheters Catheters used for electrophysiology studies (EPSs) and ablation are composed of multiple insulated wires encased in woven Dacron or polyurethane. Electrodes used in electrophysiology (EP)…

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Electrophysiologic mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis

Jun 26, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Electrophysiologic mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis

Normal excitation of the heart Cardiac electrical activity starts by the spontaneous excitation of “pacemaker” cells in the sinoatrial node in the right atrium. Pacemaker automaticity is due to spontaneous…

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Classification of arrhythmias

Jun 26, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Classification of arrhythmias

Bradyarrhythmias are due to sinus nodal disease ( Box 1.1 ) or atrioventricular conduction block ( Box 1.2 ). Box 1.1 Sinus Node Dysfunction (with accompanying symptoms) Sinus bradycardia Sinoatrial…

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Future Perspectives in Lymphatic Microsurgery

Jun 23, 2021 by in CARDIAC SURGERY Comments Off on Future Perspectives in Lymphatic Microsurgery

Lymphedema Milestons and Globalization Lymphedema Milestones in Diagnosis and Treatment The surgical and microsurgical treatment of lymphedema is rapidly evolving with new techniques, improved outcome reporting, and descriptions of more…

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Excisional Procedures: Debulking Procedures

Jun 23, 2021 by in CARDIAC SURGERY Comments Off on Excisional Procedures: Debulking Procedures

Key Points • Treatment of advanced lymphedema remains a challenge in reconstructive surgery. Surgical management with excisional procedures is indicated in select patients when conservative measures have failed. • Based…

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