Palpitation

Apr 11, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Palpitation

I. Definition Palpitation is one of the most common cardiac symptoms encountered in medical practice but it poorly corresponds to demonstrable abnormalities. The term palpitation is used loosely to describe…

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Syncope

Apr 11, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Syncope

I. Definition The brain depends on a constant supply of oxygen and glucose for normal function. Significant alterations in the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain may result…

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Cyanotic Congenital Heart Defects

Apr 11, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Cyanotic Congenital Heart Defects

A. CYANOSIS I. Pathophysiology of Cyanosis Before discussing individual cyanotic CHD, a brief review of pathophysiology of cyanosis is in order. II. Causes of Cyanosis Cyanosis is a bluish discoloration…

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Valvular Heart Disease

Apr 11, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Valvular Heart Disease

Valvular heart disease is either congenital or acquired. Many congenital valvular abnormalities are associated with other major defects. A relatively isolated form of valvular heart disease is rheumatic in origin,…

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Cardiac Tumors

Apr 11, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Cardiac Tumors

I. Prevalence 1. Cardiac tumors in the pediatric age group are very rare. A large portion of pediatric primary heart tumors (about 70%) are seen in patients younger than 1…

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Cardiovascular Involvement in Systemic Diseases

Apr 11, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Cardiovascular Involvement in Systemic Diseases

Many systemic diseases may have important cardiovascular (CV) manifestations. The CV manifestations usually are evident when the diagnosis of the primary disease is made, but occasionally CV manifestations may precede…

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Cardiac Arrhythmias

Apr 11, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Cardiac Arrhythmias

Normal heart rate varies with age: the younger the child, the faster the heart rate. Therefore the definitions used for adults of bradycardia (fewer than 60 beats/min) and tachycardia (above…

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Atrioventricular Conduction Disturbances

Apr 11, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Atrioventricular Conduction Disturbances

AV block is a disturbance in conduction between the normal sinus impulse and the eventual ventricular response. The block is assigned to one of three classes, according to the severity…

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Cardiovascular Infections and Related Conditions

Apr 11, 2021 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Cardiovascular Infections and Related Conditions

I. Infective Endocarditis (Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis) A. Prevalence Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) affects 0.5:1000 to 1:1000 hospital patients, excluding those with postoperative endocarditis. B. Pathology and Pathogenesis 1. Two factors…

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