Channelopathies

Dec 30, 2020 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Channelopathies

Channelopathies Hitoshi Horigome INTRODUCTION Cardiac channelopathies are a group of inheritable disorders that predispose fetuses with primarily structurally normal hearts to arrhythmias through the alteration of ion channel currents of…

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Immune-Mediated Atrioventricular Block

Dec 30, 2020 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Immune-Mediated Atrioventricular Block

Immune-Mediated Atrioventricular Block Helena M. Gardiner Bettina F. Cuneo INTRODUCTION Complete atrioventricular (AV) block was first described 119 years ago as “impaired atrioventricular syndrome.”1 The association of a slow heart…

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Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias

Dec 30, 2020 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias

Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias Stacy Ann Stratemann Killen Frank A. Fish INTRODUCTION The supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT) include incessant and/or paroxysmal episodes of increased fetal heart rates ≥180 beats per minute (bpm). SVT…

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Ventricular Tachycardias

Dec 30, 2020 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Ventricular Tachycardias

Ventricular Tachycardias Sally-Ann Barker Clur Lisa K. Hornberger Arja Suzanne Vink Nico A. Blom INTRODUCTION Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a rare condition responsible for only 1% to 8% of fetal…

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Ectopy

Dec 30, 2020 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Ectopy

Ectopy Katherine Anne Kosiv Anita J. Moon-Grady OVERVIEW Cardiac ectopy, composed of premature atrial (PACs) and ventricular contractions (PVCs), represents the most common fetal arrhythmia. Occurring in 1% to 2%…

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Echocardiography

Dec 30, 2020 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Echocardiography

Echocardiography Lisa Willis Howley INTRODUCTION Fetal arrhythmias, accounting for ˜10% to 20% of referrals to fetal cardiologists, can be accurately diagnosed in the prenatal period.1,2,3,4 Clinical detection and diagnosis of…

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Magnetocardiography

Dec 30, 2020 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Magnetocardiography

Magnetocardiography Ronald Wakai INTRODUCTION Electrocardiography (ECG) is the gold standard for rhythm assessment; however, fetal ECG (fECG) is not used clinically for assessment of fetal rhythm due to its limited…

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Electronic Monitoring

Dec 30, 2020 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Electronic Monitoring

Electronic Monitoring Rachel L. Rodel Henry L. Galan INTRODUCTION The two most common obstetrical means to assess fetal well-being are electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring and the biophysical profile…

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Genetics of Fetal Arrhythmias

Dec 30, 2020 by in CARDIOLOGY Comments Off on Genetics of Fetal Arrhythmias

Genetics of Fetal Arrhythmias Susan Etheridge Lindsay Meyers INTRODUCTION The fetus of a normal pregnancy was delivered emergently by cesarean delivery at 31 weeks’ gestation for bradycardia which was thought…

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