Pneumonia


Etiology


Bacterial


Viral

 

Mycoplasma


Age


Any


<2 years

 

5–15 years


Season


All year


Winter

 

All year


Presentation


Sudden


Variable

 

Insidious


Fever


High


Variable

 

Low


Tachypnea


Common


Common

 

Infrequent


Coughing


+


++

 

+++


Related symptoms


Chest pain


Acute rhinitis, conjunctivitis


Pharyngitis




Coinfection with different pathogens is possible. The most frequent combinations are RSV or influenza virus with Streptococcus pneumoniae, in 30% of the cases, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae with Streptococcus pneumoniae or Chlamydia pneumoniae in 15% of cases (Table 31.2).


Table 31.2

Etiological agents according to age
























































































































 

RN


1–3 months


4–24 months


Preschool


School


Virus


RSV


+


+++


++++


++



ADV



+


++


+



Influenza




+


++


+++


Parainfluenza



+


+


+



Metapneumovirus



+


+


+



Bacteria


Streptococcus pneumoniae


+


+


++


++++


++++


Mycoplasma pneumoniae




+


++


++++


Haemophilus influenzae



+


+




Staphylococcus aureus


+


+


+


+


+


Streptococcus agalactiae


+++


+





Escherichia coli and other gram-negative bacilli


++


+





Chlamydia trachomatis





+


+


Chlamydia pneumoniae




+


+


++


Streptococcus pyogenes





+


+

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Nov 7, 2020 | Posted by in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Pneumonia
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