10 Cyanosis



10.1055/b-0035-121505

10 Cyanosis



10.1 Definition


Cyanosis is a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes. It occurs when the hemoglobin is not adequately saturated with oxygen. Cyanosis becomes clinically visible when the amount of unsaturated hemoglobin in the veins of the skin exceeds 4 to 5 g per 100 mL of blood.


The extent of cyanosis correlates with the absolute amount of unsaturated (reduced) hemoglobin. Cyanosis may therefore not be visible in anemia (low hemoglobin content in blood), although oxygen saturation is low. However, cyanosis quickly becomes apparent even in patients with polyglobulia (high hemoglobin content in blood) who have relatively low undersaturation with oxygen.



10.2 Classification


A differentiation is made between central and peripheral cyanosis.


Central cyanosis


Central cyanosis stems from low arterial oxygen saturation. It is caused by intracardiac right-to-left shunts, by insufficient oxygenation of the blood in the lungs, or rarely by reduced oxygen-binding capacity of hemoglobin (e.g., associated with methemoglobinemia).


Peripheral cyanosis


Peripheral cyanosis stems from increased oxygen extraction from the blood when arterial oxygen saturation is normal. In most cases, it is caused by a large reduction of cardiac output due to heart failure. The skin is noticeably cool in this case.


One cause of localized peripheral cyanosis is reduced local perfusion or obstructed venous blood flow, for example, due to a thrombosis, venous congestion, or impaired peripheral blood flow. Increased vasoconstriction due to cold also leads to increased oxygen extraction (blue lips from the cold).



10.3 Diagnostic Measures


Symptoms


The leading symptom is the bluish discoloration of the skin and mucosa, which is best seen at the fingernails, lips, ear lobes, and oral mucous membranes. Clinically, a distinction is made between central and peripheral cyanosis:




  • In central cyanosis, the tongue is cyanotic and the mucosae are a deep red. The skin is warm.



  • In peripheral cyanosis, the tongue is not cyanotic. In peripheral cyanosis resulting from reduced cardiac output, the skin is cool.



  • Impaired venous outflow (thrombosis or venous congestion) leads to swelling proximal to the congestion.


Oxygen saturation


In central cyanosis, arterial oxygen saturation is reduced. In peripheral cyanosis, arterial oxygen saturation is normal, but because of increased oxygen extraction in the periphery, mixed venous oxygen saturation is reduced.


Hyperoxia test


The hyperoxia test is used to distinguish between cardiac or pulmonary cyanosis. The cyanotic patient is given 100% oxygen to breathe for a few minutes. If there is a pulmonary cause, the cyanosis disappears or is considerably reduced and there is a relevant increase in oxygen saturation. If there is a cardiac cause, oxygen saturation remains unchanged because the cardiac right-to-left shunt is not overcome by applying oxygen.


Echocardiography


Cyanotic heart defects can generally be reliably diagnosed by echocardiography. Echocardiography is therefore indispensable in patients with cyanosis.


Differential diagnoses


The most common cyanotic heart defects are:




  • Transposition of the great arteries



  • Fallot group:




    • Tetralogy of Fallot



    • Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect



    • Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum



    • “Double-outlet right ventricle”



  • Univentricular heart:




    • Tricuspid atresia



    • Single ventricle



    • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome



  • Ebstein anomaly



  • Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection



  • Truncus arteriosus communis


The most common differential diagnoses for cyanosis are summarized in Table 10.1.




















Table 10.1 Frequent causes of cyanosis in childhood

Central cyanosis


Reduced alveolar ventilation:




  • Apnea (premature birth, asphyxia, seizures, CNS damage)



  • Inadequate respiratory drive (Pickwick syndrome)



  • Airway obstruction (choanal atresia, tracheal stenosis, Pierre Robin sequence, bronchial asthma, croup, aspiration of a foreign body)



  • Parenchymal lung disease (pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome, meconium aspiration, lung deformities)



  • Restrictive lung diseases (pneumothorax, pleural effusions, diaphragmatic hernia, severe thorax deformity)



  • Ventilation–perfusion mismatch



  • Weakness of the respiratory muscles and respiratory regulation disorders (myopathies, Ondine syndrome


Right-to-left shunts:




  • Right-to-left intracardiac shunts (cyanotic heart defect)



  • Intrapulmonary shunts



  • Pulmonary hypertension resulting in a right-to-left shunt (persistent pulmonary hypertension in the neonate, Eisenmenger syndrome)


Peripheral cyanosis




  • Shock, sepsis



  • Heart failure



  • Hypothermia



  • Isolated perioral cyanosis and acrocyanosis



  • Low cardiac output


Methemoglobinemia




  • Congenital methemoglobinemia



  • Toxins (e.g., nitrates, nitrites, amines)



Note


Investigation of perioral cyanosis or acrocyanosis is one of the most frequent reasons for presenting a child to a pediatric cardiology practice or clinic. If reduced cardiac output (heart failure, shock) can be ruled out, it is almost always a harmless phenomenon. In these cases oxygen extraction is increased, which probably occurs due to a slow blood flow in the capillary bed in conjunction with vasoconstriction or temporary hypotension. Perioral cyanosis is particularly noticeable in children with light skin.

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Jun 13, 2020 | Posted by in CARDIOLOGY | Comments Off on 10 Cyanosis
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